Dating rituals in the middle east

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Even in medieval times Muslim women enjoyed rights that Western women only won much later, such as the right to own and manage property, to sue and to be sued, and to enter into contracts and conduct business.In contrast, where Middle Eastern women have been severely disadvantaged has been in the areas of family law and inheritance, where women are accorded fewer rights than men and are subordinated to male authority.Since obtaining their independence from Europe, most Middle Eastern governments have undertaken legal reforms directed at reducing the inequalities between men and women, but they have had to face strong opposition from Muslim clerics (the ulama or fuqaha) as well as from other conservative religious forces, who charge them with violating the Divine Law.The greatest progress in law reform has been thus achieved by governments which were least dependent on the good will of the Muslim clergy.As a result of the increasing political influence of Islamic fundamentalism, the liberal interpretations of Islamic law that had previously gained popularity have been discarded by many Muslims in favor of more conservative ones.The Islamic fundamentalist movement has campaigned to forestall any legal changes that might undermine male domination and privilege in the family and to eliminate reforms that have enhanced women's rights - a campaign which invokes traditional interpretations of Islamic law as its justification.They were assisted in these attempts by liberal Muslim intellectuals, who propounded new interpretations of Islamic law that justified modifying the rules propounded by medieval jurists to accommodate the changing circumstances of modern societies.

It is where political leadership has judged that legal reforms in the status of women would promote the achievement of full modernization that reforms have been made.

Thus, the effects of legal changes in these societies tend to trickle down gradually.

It is important to remember that the problems of male-female inequality that have most typically concerned Western feminists are different from those facing Middle Eastern feminists.

Generally, Middle Eastern women enjoy something close to legal equality with men in political life, access to education, professional opportunities, and salaries - goals for which Western women have long had to struggle.

Moreover, Islamic law has from the outset given women full legal capacity once they attain puberty.

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